How I Made $17,000 Blogging part-time
In 2023, I went through my 3rd blogging course and decided to go at this online blogging business one last time. I’m glad I did because this time, it finally clicked, and I made over $17,000 in 2023.
But it it was far from easy. Trying to make money blogging (and, more specifically, learning SEO) is probably the hardest skill I’ve had to learn in my entire career so far. What attracted me to it, however, was that anyone could learn it – take it from a C-average student from college.
In this article, I’ll share the nitty-gritty details of what I did on my own blog and how I will adjust my strategies in 2024 to set you up for success should you choose this business model.
Before we continue, this post contains affiliate links, which means I may receive a commission if you purchase something through the links at no extra cost to you. This helps me run my business for free to my readers.
Revenue – My Income Streams from Blogging in 2023
Affiliate Revenue – 2023 Earnings: $400
This revenue stream is the quickest to setup and complements a well ranking blog post. When you rank keywords related to a product or service and you apply for their affiliate program you can quickly make your first internet dollar.
I only promoted 2-3 products that paid out, and while this method has potential, I just didn’t have time to develop it fully in 2023 because I went straight to client services. I may focus about 20% of my time in 2024 on this.
Here are a couple receipts from 2023.
This blog that made commission was one of the earliest ones I posted, and I didn’t think much of it, but it did make almost $100 to date – modest beginnings.
I also dabbled in the Amazon Affiliate Program, and it also made some commissions, but certainly nothing to write home about. It seems to require a lot of traffic to scale this.
SEO Services – 2023 Earnings: $13,000 in revenue
The majority of my revenue came from SEO writing services. I’ll create more guides around this in the future on how to execute this in detail and make videos about it on YouTube.
I’ve written in all sorts of niches ranging from tech, finance, and agriculture – you name it. Here are the stripe payments from a different client.
I promise I’m not trying to brag, but it’s important to show this is possible and a skill someone can learn in 6-12 months of focus.
My service offering typically includes keyword research, writing articles, and publishing them for the clients if required. I do all the on-page SEO for them and advise on strategy occasionally.
Ad Revenue – 2023 Earnings: $4,000 in revenue
This revenue stream started for me only in the last two months of 2023 and will be my primary focus for 2024. Ad Revenue gets a bad name, but for the right brand, it is one of the easiest ways to monetize for sites that can get a lot of traffic.
No need to sell any services, just needs a lot of clicks.
Due to the ad network’s guidelines, I cannot show screenshots of my revenue dashboard, but I have a way around this in a future update.
Now, I will break down each income stream and how I set them up.
How to Leverage Affiliate Marketing for Bloggers
The advantage of affiliate marketing is it allows you to generate revenue quickly. I’ve seen bloggers generate them on their first blog post, and others like me took several months before I saw a single dollar.
Either way, this method of income generation is a must for your beginner bloggers. Heck, if the New York Times can promote Amazon affiliate links, why shouldn’t you?
Understanding Affiliate Marketing
Affiliate marketing is where you (the affiliate) recommend products in your blog articles related to the topic you are writing about. In essence, it’s a middle man play.
It’s a profitable partnership between a blogger and a company offering a product or service. You, the blogger, earn a percentage commission each time a person completes a purchase through your unique affiliate link.
This symbiotic relationship opens up income streams while allowing you to retain your authenticity. Your links act as little salespeople who are always working 24/7.
Your audience continues to benefit from your high-quality, honest content, and you enjoy an added paycheck.
It’s a no-lose scenario – companies reach larger audiences and gain customer trust, and bloggers, in turn, monetize their blogs effectively.
Affiliate marketing can provide decent recurring income. It doesn’t require a substantial upfront investment, making it suitable for bloggers at all stages.
Choosing the Right Affiliate Programs
While selecting the right affiliate program is important, I wouldn’t worry about this for your first 6 months. This best plan is to ONLY apply for programs you have experience with.
After you start making revenue, you can be more strict in finding the right affiliate program depending on these factors:
- Relevance: Choose products that mirrors the niche you are writing for and that resonate with your target audience. Promoting mismatching products can harm your credibility.
- Commission: Investigate the commission structure. High commissions are tempting, but ensure they aren’t a mask for low-quality products.
- Payment terms: At the beginning, this isn’t a huge deal, but you ideally want to get paid in higher frequencies (at least monthly) but some payment terms are 60 days meaning what you generate today, you won’t see in your bank account for at least 2 months.
- Quality: Prioritize programs that offer top-tier products/services. These will bring you repeat commissions and improve your blog’s reputation.
- Support: Opt for affiliate programs that offer excellent support and resources, making your promotion job simpler. For example, do they offer affiliate marketing collateral?
Promoting Affiliate Products Effectively
When you’ve landed the first affiliate product, the real game begins.
Effective promotion is an art and a science. It requires an understanding of your audience’s needs, strategic positioning, persuasive copywriting, and thorough tracking of your results.
Connect the power of the written word and compelling visuals to build an appealing narrative around the affiliate products. Integrate your affiliate links naturally within your content. Avoid stuffing your posts with affiliate links – it’s a turn-off for readers and search engines alike.
Track your promotional tactics’ performance. This real-time feedback allows you to fine-tune your strategy and maximize your earnings from affiliate marketing.
For example, if your article does not rank for any keywords after a few months, then it has nothing to do with the product. This means the article needs rework.
If you are getting clicks to the article, but no one is buying, either the article is ranking too low (and therefore doesn’t have enough traffic to convert), or your copywriting needs work.
Be careful not to spend all your time just looking at dashboards – this is a total momentum killer and made me prone to distraction.
Monetizing With SEO Services
Now that you understand the basics of affiliate revenue let’s talk about how you can provide SEO content writing as a service. Of course, you’ll need to learn the skill before offering a service. Let’s dive in.
Quick overview of SEO
SEO (search engine optimization) is all about writing content that humans find value in and that follows proper formatting guidelines (on-page SEO). More specifically, you need to:
- Understand keyword research – finding out what you should write about, or put another way, find out what people are searching for.
- Understand search intent – why do people google the terms they do, are they looking to purchase or are they just looking for information or is it trivia night and they need to confirm an answer?
- Create good enough content – Give actual valuable information to the reader. Bad news: AI writing isn’t going to cut it, but it will improve your production time.
Step 1: Find What You Enjoy Writing About
Some bloggers call this “picking a niche,” but it’s more than deciding what to write about. To make this venture less painful, pick something you enjoy writing about.
For example, I enjoy researching and trying out different tools in the marketing space, so it made sense for me to write about anything related to blogging, as it is a natural fit. It doesn’t require much extra effort as I already have experience in this field.
Another topic I could have written about was project management. I have PM-ed for over 20 years now, but this is not something I want to write about every week. It was an incredibly boring part of my career, and I’d rather just leave it behind me.
Beginner bloggers (like me last year) get stuck here because they don’t want to blog about their 9-5 career as it may not be their passion, so it is worth spending some time on what you would like to create content about for the next 3-5-10 years.
It is worth noting, most profitable niches like health, wealth and relationships are highly competitive and therefore, your expectation on the time to monetization needs to match. Highly competitive niches take longer to monetize, but are still profitable nonetheless.
For example, a blog I write for in the finance niche (trading stocks specifically) and I’ve written probably 10 blogs now for it and it has yet to rank for anything meaningful. The time horizon to break into finance is just much higher than agriculture which took me maybe 3 articles to find meaning traction (clicks to website).
Step 2: Setup a blog with WordPress.org
You can technically use any platform you want (squarespace, shopify, wix among a dozen others) but WordPress is still king for bogging and allows for the most flexibility while keeping costs low. Just understand the difference between the two – hint: .org is the one you want.
If you are a programmer, you get a few more options, but most of us (including myself) are not coders. Even if you are a programmer, I recommend WordPress because you can always move your Content Management System around later.
If you do choose WordPress, you will need to purchase hosting. Hosting can start at under $3 a month for the first year and will be over a hundred dollars a year to maintain after that for a decent host (fast loading etc).
Step 3: Learn how to keyword research
Keyword research is a method that lets you search for the terms that others are searching for. A very easy way to achieve this is through Google’s autocomplete feature.
Start typing a term, and Google will attempt to fill in the most common terms. If it appears in this list, there is at least some demand for that search term.
The challenge with this method is that you can’t see the monthly search volume, so you could spend time writing about something that only gets a few searches a month.
You can also use trend data to see if a topic is worth covering.
Because this step is important, there will be a future blog post about this, which I will link when available.
Step 4: Understanding Search Intent
Have you tried googling “lemon?” You’ll see that you get a very wide range of results. This is because Google doesn’t know what your search intent is.
When you look at the SERP (Search Engine Results Page) image below, it is clear, “lemon” is not enough words to tell google what the searcher actually wants. As a result, Google will serve up a couple of options. Too many options mean it is not a good keyword to go after.
However, if you google “padded socks,” you’ll most certainly get ecommerce store product pages. This is because the search intent of padded socks is that you, the searcher, are looking to purchase padded socks.
Search intent is simply understanding what the searcher wants when they enter the terms into a search engine. This is the same concept for other engines like Bing and Yahoo etc.
When you can quickly identify the intent, you can start to make content that aligns with it, which gives you a higher probability of ranking in search results.
Step 5: Create Valuable Content
Notice I didn’t say “good content.” Valuable is what we are going for and value means you are solving a problem. Value equates to high-quality, engaging blog post ideas that solve the searcher’s problem.
Your job? To ensure every blog post you produce solves a problem.
Hopefully, this blog you’re reading solves your question, “How to make a profit with a blog.” At least, that is what I believe the intention is when you land on it.
Making engaging content doesn’t require a magic formula. It does require a mix of patience and understanding of what your targeted readers want. What are their burning questions? Can you predict what they will ask next? What are their unfulfilled needs?
Answer these in your blogs. Remember, quality trumps quantity. Invest your resources into producing excellent content rather than churning out mediocre posts.
Google even gives you a hint in their People Also Ask section. For example, if I were to write an article around “padded socks,” I would maybe want to include a section about “cushioned socks” as they are closely related.
Step 6: Build lasting relationships with other bloggers
Start meeting other bloggers because they will become your best allies in building your business.
Here are 6 practical ways to build relationships, all of which I did in some capacity this past year.
Join Blogging Communities Online: Websites like Reddit, LinkedIn, and specific blogging forums are platforms where bloggers share their experiences, ask questions, and connect. Most courses also have their communities, this is how I found 95% of the folks in my blogging networks.
Participate in Social Media Groups: Facebook, LinkedIn, and other social media platforms have groups dedicated to blogging where members can interact, share content, and support each other. This was the method I used before joining a paid course. I made a few connections through Facebook that I still connect with today.
Guest Blogging: Offering to write guest posts for other blogs or accepting guest posts on your blog can be a great way to build relationships. Some of these guest bloggers will also go on to build huge businesses of their own, and you can cross-collaborate with them later when you’ve built up your blog.
Collaborate on Projects: Collaborating on side projects can help you connect with fellow entrepreneurs as you journey through this together.
Attend Local Meetups and Workshops: Look for local blogger meetups, workshops, or networking events in your local area.
Use Direct Messages on Social Media platforms to Reach Out: Don’t hesitate to reach out to founders you admire on platforms like Twitter/X or Instagram. A simple message expressing your interest in their work can start a conversation. I’ve met founder in private slack groups that are some of my favorite online friends to date through this method.
Step 7: Focus on inputs and not results
This one is tough to wrap my head around because I’ve been taught since college to set goals. Goals are useless without proper inputs.
Instead of having a goal to make $10,000 blogging (results), make the goal to publish 2 highly valuable blog posts for your own blog per month (inputs). The money will be a byproduct of the inputs if you are doing proper SEO research and allow enough time for the search engines to pick it up.
Step 8: Find someone to be accountable to
I am terrible at staying accountable. What I found helpful was to join a community of like minded bloggers so I could see their wins and challenges to remind myself why I was doing all this work. These short messages can help boost your confidence each day and keep you going.
When I first started, I had no one to talk to about making money blogging. I felt weird trying to learn this skill that none of my in-person friends were doing, so I never really shared what I was doing.
This all changed when I purchased a course and decided to blog as a real business. I was able to meet lots of like minded people and go on this journey together.
With that, I’d like to invite you to…
When to offer SEO services
To know when to start offering SEO services, you have to ask yourself if you are confident in delivering results.
You can gain confidence by writing more articles and checking if they are fetching keywords to rank. Once you can successfully rank 2-5 articles on page one of Google, you are likely ready to find your first client.
I’ll be honest: if you’re not used to selling done-for-you services, this first time will put you out of your comfort zone.
To help with this, you can potentially direct message a founder of a small startup – usually a single founder and ask if they would be ok to publish your content and let them know, in exchange, you want a testimonial for your work (assuming it nets results).
You only need a single testimonial, but continue providing articles for other brands for free until you are confident you can get results. You can always offer a money-back guarantee if you don’t rank anything in 6 months.
Action: What to do next?
With that said, to put this last section into action and start putting in your reps to learn how to write SEO content, start by:
- Purchasing hosting for your website
- Setup your WordPress website
- Setup your About page
- Publish 1 blog
- Find an accountability partner
I will create how to guides for all of steps above in the near future (my inputs!). If you can’t figure out these 5 steps above on your own, try to use YouTube – This was what I did in year 1. Find someone you can learn from and teach in a style you resonate with.
Generating Ad Revenue from Your Blog
After you’ve written between 10-20 blog articles, you’ll start getting into a rhythm of blogging and better understand what works and what doesn’t.
At this point, you’ll want to learn what it takes to apply to receive ad revenue.
Understanding Ad Revenue
Ad revenue is the income earned from advertisement placements. Be it display ads or sponsored posts. Each has its role and benefits to your blog’s income. The beauty lies in the scalability of ad revenue. As your blog’s readership grows, so does your income potential, even without requiring you to develop or maintain products on your own.
If you google “Mediavine commission” and click Images, you’ll see that some bloggers have posted their commissions which ranges from$50-$4000+ per month. Due to Mediavine’s guidelines, I cannot show you my commission dashboard.
The key challenge? You typically need to accrue significant, consistent traffic. More eyeballs equate to more ad impressions and potential click-throughs, further translating into higher ad revenue.
For example, the Mediavine network typically requires 50,000 monthly sessions before you can be considered for their network. This means you will need 50k clicks (not just impressions).
Choosing the Right Ad Networks
The choice of ad network can significantly impact your blog’s ad revenue. Consider payment terms, ad types, and minimum traffic requirements.
For example, Google AdSense might be a natural choice for beginners due to its easy setup and widespread use. However, it’s worth exploring other platforms like Mediavine or Infolinks, which might provide a better revenue share or more suitable ad types for your audience demographics.
I’ve only ever tried and used Mediavine, and I would recommend them if you decide to monetize your blog with ads. They allow auto insertion into your blog posts (you don’t need to place the ads yourself), and their dashboard is easy to use and understand.
Optimizing Your Blog for Ad Revenue
Once accepted into an ad network, it’s time to find out where to put ads on your site. You could start with the highest-traffic blog pages, which would almost instantly generate revenue.
Additionally, consider a mobile-friendly layout. I’ve seen stats as high as 90% that use mobile as their internet browsing device.
Balancing ad placement with an excellent user experience should be the aim. Check your Google search console to see if there are impacts on click-through rates when ads are inserted.
Remember, experimenting is key. Keep assessing what works best for your blog, continually tweaking for the best results.
Brand Impact of Ads
Inserting dynamic ads does require you to consider your brand. Inserting ads typically will degrade the user experience in some form. Many ad networks let you control which pages to insert ads on. You may want to turn off ads on landing pages, for example.
If you’ve ever been on websites littered with ads and don’t want the same experience for your readers, stick with affiliate marketing or offering SEO services. It is a much more subtle way to make your blog profitable.
Just know you’ll leave some money on the table if you have high traffic and no ad placements. It is a balancing act; only you can decide the right balance for you and your brand.
Making Money through Sponsored Blog Content
Full disclosure: I haven’t personally been approached or approached by brands for sponsorship. I’m improving this in 2024, but this is how I would do it.
Understanding Sponsored Content
Much like a sponsored Instagram post, sponsored blog content refers to blog articles or posts paid for by a sponsor who wants to promote their product or service. It is an attractive route for making money because it combines income generation with strengthening brand awareness.
Why sponsored content? It’s a two-tier benefit. Firstly, sponsors pay directly for the visibility and promotion. Secondly, well-curated sponsored blogs can amplify your brand and attract more traffic, increasing the likelihood of future sponsorships.
Finding and Pitching to Potential Sponsors
Finding a sponsor begins with isolating a list of companies whose products or services align with your blog theme.
The next phase is your pitch. Communicating your blog’s value effectively to the potential sponsor can clinch the deal. An impactful pitch should highlight your blog’s metrics, audience demographics, past collaborations, and, most importantly, how sponsorship can be mutually beneficial.
Always remember pitching is a dynamic process. Be open to tweaking your approach based on feedback or even sponsor preferences.
It’s also important to decide up front how much you’re willing to give up for a sponsor. Some sponsors are quite particular about the terms, and even though they may provide a nice paycheck, it might not be worth the hassle.
This is dependent on which phase your business is in. You always want to put your blog in a place of leverage and not seem desperate to get the sponsor so you can negotiate better terms.
Creating Engaging Sponsored Content
Sponsored blog content is not just about mindless promotion. It is about creating valuable, engaging content that syncs with your sponsor’s brand while resonating with your audience.
Here are some best practices:
- Understand your audience: Ensure your sponsored content aligns with their interests, preferences, and needs. Research can come in handy here. You can provide surveys if you have an audience already or just show your work in progress in blog forums to get feedback.
- Align with your brand: Don’t alienate your audience by promoting something they’d never expect to see on your blog. An apparel brand promoting travel insurance might make sense (you need clothes to travel, after all), but a supplement brand promoting Bluetooth keyboards is clearly off-brand.
- Transparency: Clearly mention that the content is sponsored. Ethical practices always yield long-term relationships. It can also be against regulations not to disclose this relationship in many countries.
- Content Quality: Your sponsored blog posts should match, if not exceed, the quality of your regular posts.
Navigating through affiliate marketing to sponsored content might seem like a leap. However, it can be a smooth ride with a planned approach to finding sponsors and creating engaging content.
Selling Digital Products on Your Blog
Types of Digital Products You Can Sell
Any blog can become a marketplace, showcasing an array of digital products. Digital products are cost-effective and have infinite scalability, allowing customers instant access to their purchases, no matter their location.
Here are just a few ideas of what you can sell online. With tools like ai writers, executing these strategies is much easier than ever before.
- E-books: Transform your expert knowledge into an enriching E-book. They’re inexpensive to produce and can cover many subjects, from professional advice to personal experiences.
- Online Courses: Share your expertise with eager learners by creating online courses. With options for videos, quizzes, and interactive forums, these can offer in-depth knowledge in an engaging format.
- Subscription Services: Offer premium content, early access, or exclusive features to those willing to pay a monthly fee. This approach ensures a regular income stream.
- Webinars/Workshops: Impart knowledge to a live audience. These interactive sessions offer real-time engagement and can be repurposed later.
- Software or Apps: If you’re a programmer, custom-made software, apps or tools catered to your blogger niche can prove profitable.
- Sell Consulting Services: After you have gained enough experience and have case studies of your results, you can start charging for your time. It’s important always to make each exchange valuable regardless if anyone becomes your customer. This is the primary revenue stream in my business right now.
Creating Your Own Digital Products
Creating a digital product requires some groundwork. Begin with understanding your audience, their needs, and their preferences. Once their demand is analyzed, devise a strategy that aligns with your blog’s brand and purpose.
Deciding on a Product: Base your product decision not just on your expertise but also by reflecting on your audience’s demands, interests, and willingness to pay. Again, see if you can collect some information in the form of a survey or even just chatting in the communities.
Align with your Skillset: If you are more comfortable over video, consider creating a short course. If you prefer less facetime, consider a paid community where you offer your time as part of the package.
Creating the Product: Invest your time and energy into creating a high-quality product, whether it’s an e-book, online course, or software. Again, always prioritize value as we’re trying to solve someone’s problems with our solutions.
Pricing Your Product: Pricing can be tricky. Too high, and you might deter potential buyers; too low, and your efforts may not deliver the desired profit—research similar offerings on the market to strike a balance.
Promoting and Selling Digital Products
Success in selling digital products depends on strategic promotion. Following are some actionable steps to ensure your digital products reach the right audience and fetch anticipated returns.
Leverage Your Existing Audience: Your blog readers are your primary potential customers. Announce your product on your blog, social media channels, and newsletters.
Offer Discounts or Bundle Deals: An initial discount or interesting bundle deal can help trigger initial sales and generate customer reviews. Grandfather in these early adopters as they will become your best advocates and future affiliates.
Affiliate Marketing: Collaborating with industry influencers and offering them a commission for every referral can expand your reach substantially.
Customer Reviews and Testimonials: Positive reviews and testimonials instill confidence in potential buyers. Encourage your customers to leave feedback after their purchase. Be creative here. You can offer discounts to the first 5 people who give you testimonials.
Frequently Asked Questions about Making Money Blogging
How many articles do I need to write to make money
This will vary based on the niche you select, how quickly you can learn SEO fundamentals and how often you publish a blog online. But that isn’t the answer you are looking for so here is an example to help.
A reasonable timeframe to expect is 6 months of consistent blogging where you write 4 articles a month that are high quality and well keyword researched. At this publishing velocity, you can reasonably get first affiliate revenue and then put yourself in a good position to apply to ad networks or at least build a small email list for future projects.
Here’s my personal experience with why I believe the above is the ideal time frame.
I published 32 articles on an established website that was 2 years old. That website now generates $2,000 a month in just ad revenue (not to mention the service also generates revenue).
The website intitially had less than 15 clicks per month before I started. It took me 6 months to publish all the articles starting from around Janurary 2023 and it took almost a full 12 months before there was enough traffic to be accepted into Mediavine. There was zero backlink building, not because I don’t believe in it but because I was focused on publishing content first. Ideally I would have done both.
How Much Money Can You Make from Blogging?
From personal experience and what I’ve seen others do, my best estimate is $2,000 per month by the end of year 1, $10,000 per month by the end of year 3, and then from there it varies depending on what you offer, and if you go digital product route or just stick with affiliate marketing.
Earning potential depends on factors such as your niche, your audience size, and how you monetize your blog. Some bloggers manage to make a full-time income, while others earn enough to supplement their main income (like me). Others may only make a small amount, but the key point is this: Being consistent creates successful bloggers if done right.
When deciding how to monetize your blog, research different methods and decide which ones are most likely to resonate with your audience and your writing style.
How Long Does It Take to Make Money from Blogging?
A reasonable timeframe to shoot for is 6 to 12 months from publishing your first post. I’ve seen people make $10,000 in affiliate marketing with an absolutely terrible blog website design, but they were consistent in making well-researched content. So the main factor, more than anything else, is your consistency.
This variability is because blogging is not a get-rich-quick scheme. It needs patience, commitment, and a lot of hard work.
Being consistent in creating quality content, promoting your blog effectively, and engaging with your audience are some ways to expedite this process. But remember, long-term success is always preferred over short-term gains.
Can You Make Money Blogging Without a Large Audience?
100% Yes. Contrary to popular belief, making money blogging does not always require a large audience. Quality often outweighs quantity.
Having a smaller audience that is highly engaged and trusts your opinion can be just as profitable. In fact, some bloggers with smaller, loyal audiences make money online through affiliate marketing, sponsored posts, and selling their products or services.
The key is understanding your audience’s problems and providing a relevant solution. If your audience values your content and sees it as a reliable resource, they’re more likely to convert into paying customers.
What Are the Most Profitable Niches for Blogging?
Certain blogging niches do tend to be more profitable than others, but this doesn’t guarantee monetary success. Personal finance, health and wellness, tech and lifestyle are popular, profitable niches due to their broad appeal and multiple monetization opportunities.
Still, the most profitable niche for you is likely to be one that you’re passionate and knowledgeable about. This passion and expertise will enable you to create unique, high-quality content that engages your audience and leads to financial success.
All in all, making money from blogging requires a mix of strategic monetization, consistency, quality content, and patience. Profitability is possible, no matter the size of your audience or your chosen niche.
Wrapping it Up
Ok we’ve covered a lot. I hope that I have inspired you to at least consider this blogging journey. Don’t get me wrong, I’m very grateful to be employed, but I can’t always assume my job will be there and I wanted to build an asset that would serve me in the future.
Successful blogging isn’t magic—it’s strategy, consistency, and (at least for me) finding accountability. These are the things you should keep in sight. And remember, there’s no hidden catch, and there’s no overnight success in this game.
The next step is action! Create a profitable blog by crafting your content, publishing regularly, and staying dedicated—each blog post brings you closer to your goals. It will feel like you’re just talking to no one initially, but this will change over time. Best of luck.
Remember, if you’re still feeling stuck, just come on over and chat with me in Slack. I’ll get you unblocked.